What do you mean by spatial Database? Explain with its architecture

A spatial database is a database that is optimized to store and query data that represents objects defined in a geometric space. Most spatial databases allow representing simple geometric objects such as points, lines and polygons. Some spatial databases handle more complex structures such as 3D objects, topological coverage’s, linear networks etc.

Examples of Spatial Database data
·      geographic space - GIS, LIS, urban planning, ...
·      the universe-astronomy
·      a VLSI design
·      a model of the brain (or someone's brain) - medicine
·      a molecule structure

Characteristics of spatial databases
·      A spatial database system is a database system.
·      It offers spatial data types (SDTs) in its data model and query language.
·      It supports spatial data types in its implementation, providing at least spatial indexing and efficient algorithms for spatial join.
·      Spatial databases use a spatial index to speed up database operations.

Architecture of Spatial Database Management System

The above figure illustrates architecture of SDBMS on top of an ORDBMS (Object Relational DBMS). This is three-layer architecture.
1.     Spatial Application: This is the top layer. It does not interact with the ORDMBS but goes through a middle layer called spatial database.
2.     Spatial Database: This is the middle layer. The middle layer is where mot of available spatial domain knowledge is encapsulated and the layer is plugged into the OR-DBMS.
3.     ORDBMS- It is object relational Database and hence deals with entity, objects etc.


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